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Haloacetic Acids Disinfectant byproduct

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Another set of chlorine disinfectant byproduct (DBPs)

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed, along with other Trihalomethanes (THMs) and chlorate, when chlorine is used as a disinfectant in water, which in turn reacts with organic waste products, which are continually being contributed to the water (e.g. by swimmers), to form chlorine disinfectant byproducts (DBPs). This is the exact primary sanitation process that takes place at your local swimming pool.

There are 9 known HAAs, Australia regulates the first 5 of these 9 in drinking water. These levels are compared to that of the World Health Organisation (WHO) suggested levels below:

Australia

(WHO)

Health risk

1. Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA)

<0.15ppm

<0.02ppm

Group 3

2. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA)

<0.1ppm

<0.05ppm

Group 2B

3. Trichloroacdetic acid (TCAA)

<0.1ppm

<0.2ppm

Group 2B

4. Monobromoacetic acid (MBAA)

<0.15ppm

<0.2ppm

Group 3

5. Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA)

<0.1ppm

<0.05ppm

Group 2B

6. Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) Group 2B
7. Bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA) <0.1ppm <0.5ppm Group 3
8. Dibromochloroacetic acid (DBCAA) Group 3
9. Tribromoacetic acid (TBAA) Group 3

Below are the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) category group explanations as per scientific studies conducted:

-The category Group 1 is labelled ‘Carcinogenic to humans.’

-The category Group 2A is labelled ‘Probably carcinogenic to humans.’

-The category Group 2B is labelled ‘Possibly carcinogenic to humans.’

-The category Group 3 is labeled ‘Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity.’

As a result of prolonged exposure to the above HAAs, Increased incidences of tumors in several organs including the liver and kidney, as well as effects to the male sperm and its production were identified in the experimental studies conducted on both rats and mice.

“There are no epidemiological studies of TCA carcinogenicity in humans. Most of the human health data for chlorinated acetic acids concern components of complex mixtures of water disinfectant byproducts. These complex mixtures of disinfectant byproducts have been associated with increased potential for bladder, rectal, and colon cancer in humans [reviewed by Boorman et al. (1999); Mills et al. (1998)].”

Trihalomethanes (THMs) are also regulated in Australia in drinking water, with the limit being <0.25ppm.

A question I am left with is: Why are HAAs and THMs regulated in Australia for drinking water, however they’re NOT regulated in Australia for the commercial pool industry?

Written by John Morrison BSc

References:

 

25/10/2019
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